About the review
This systematic review evaluates the scientific literature on the presentations of injuries to the ear, nose and throat in the context of physical child abuse published up until January 2015.
It aims to answer the following clinical questions:
- What are the identified characteristics of epistaxis indicative of asphyxiation in children less than 2 years of age?
- What are the ear, nose and throat manifestations of physical abuse or fabricated or induced illness?
The review findings highlight the need for a full evaluation of asphyxiation if a child under the age of two present with epistaxis in the absence of a haematological disorder or known trauma.
The implications for practice and research, and other useful references are included in the review.
- Epistaxis is a rare presentation in children aged less than 2 years, however when present it is significantly associated with asphyxiation, either intentional or unintentional.
- Any child less than 2 years of age presenting with epistaxis in the absence of known trauma or haematological disorders warrants a full evaluation for asphyxiation as a possible cause.
- Some children presenting with asphyxia may have no overt symptoms; those that were symptomatic included altered skin colour, respiratory distress, altered heart rate, and a possible history of Apparent Life Threatening Events.
Disclaimer: This is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates
Original reviews and content © Cardiff University, funded by NSPCC
While the format of each review has been revised to fit the style of the College and amalgamated into a comprehensive document, the content remains unchanged until reviewed and new evidence is identified and added to the evidence-base. Updated content will be indicated on individual review pages.