Screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) - clinical guideline

ROP is one of the few causes of childhood visual disability that is largely preventable. This evidence-based guideline has been updated by RCPCH in collaboration with Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) and British Association of Perinatal Medicine (BAPM) in March 2022. Also available are a printable examination recording form, summary of recommendations and an information leaflet for parents and carers.
Neonate in blanket

Many extremely preterm babies will develop some degree of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with the majority of cases never progressing beyond mild disease, resolving spontaneously without treatment. However, a small proportion develop potentially severe ROP which can be detected through retinal screening. If untreated, severe disease can result in serious vision impairment and consequently all babies at risk of sight-threatening ROP should be screened on time.

About the guideline

UK screening of ROP guideline cover

This guideline is an update of the 2008 UK Screening and Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity, which was originally developed by RCPCH, RCOphth, BAPM and Bliss. It was reviewed in 2013 and subsequently updated in 2022. It will next be reviewed in 2027.

For the 2022 update, the topics were reviewed and are presented separately:

  • Screening of ROP: RCPCH updated this topic, and the full guideline, printable examination recording form, summary of recommendations and parent and carer information leaflet can be downloaded below.
  • Treatment of ROP: RCOphth has updated this topic, and the full guideline, executive summary and information leaflet for parents and guardians are on the RCOphth website

    The RCPCH guideline is NICE accredited and developed in accordance with our guideline development process manual, Setting standards for development of clinical guidelines in paediatrics and child health (2020). 

    You can get permission to reuse RCPCH published content quickly and easily.

    Summary of changes to guideline on screening of ROP

    The guideline takes into account the significant changes in both the clinical and organisational aspects of neonatal care that have taken place over the previous 14 years.

    • Screening criteria: The gestational age criterion for screening has been reduced from 32 weeks to 31 weeks as based on more recent published evidence. The birthweight criterion of less than 1501g has not changed. It is estimated that this will lead to a reduction in the number of babies needing screening of about 13%.
    • Timing of first examination: Precise timing of the first examination is stated.
    • Preparation for screening: Greater detail is included related to the preparation for screening, including consent, comfort care and pain relief during the screening examination. Our information leaflet for parents and carers has been fully revised.
    • Follow up examinations: When necessary, the importance of attending follow-up examinations is emphasised. The need for appropriate resuscitation equipment and trained staff is stated for outpatient examinations. 
    • Referral to treatment: Details of when to refer for treatment are specified.
    • Record keeping and communications with others: There is emphasis throughout the guideline on record keeping and communication both with parents/carers and between professionals as well as the role of a ROP service coordinator.
    • Updated tools: A new algorithm for observations and a screening record form are included.
    • Comprehensive appendices: These give full details of the guideline scope, methodology and development.